Insomnia is a disorder associated with insufficient sleep, poor quality and non-recuperative feeling. The result is fatigue during the day, as well as irritability or mood disorders. Insomnia can be temporary or chronic.
The transient insomnia occur on a short-term (up to three weeks). It usually has easily identifiable causes (poor sleep hygiene, consumption of exciting substances, stressful life events, medical issues, environmental changes).
The chronic insomnia are sleep disturbances that occur for over three weeks and the causes are multi factorial and often less easily identifiable.
Psycho physiological insomnia
A stressful event will trigger bad sleep habits that will become chronic afterwards. The person then develops conditioning (fear of not sleeping or sleeping badly), which will reinforce and aggravate insomnia;
Psychiatric Insomnia: People with certain psychic disorders (mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, schizophrenia) often have insomnia;
Insomnia related to medications: insomnia is part of the side effects of certain drugs, such as amphetamines and antidepressants.
Insomnia: Insomnia may be related to medical conditions, sleep disorders or abnormal movements during sleep:
Medical conditions causing insomnia
These are organic or neurological conditions, such as head injuries, degenerative neurological diseases, stroke, acute pain, pulmonary disease, cardiovascular and endocrine disorders And the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Sleep apnea-hypopnea (AHS) may occur in the form of decreased respiratory activity (hypopnea), discontinuation with persistence (obstructive apnea), or interruptions in ventilatory control (central apnea ). An apnea corresponds to an interruption of breathing for more than 10 seconds. It can cause short-lived awakenings and break up sleep. The consequences are significant diurnal somnolence, cognitive impairment (concentration, memory) and snoring;
When a person makes more than 15 apneas or hypopneas per hour of sleep, one speaks of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). This phenomenon affects men more than women. It is often due to abnormalities in the upper airways. Smoking and obesity are aggravating factors.
Abnormal movements during sleep: among the most frequent are periodic movements of the legs during sleep (MPJS) and restless legs syndrome (RLS). The MPJS lasts between 0.5 and 5 seconds and occur every 4-90 seconds. They result in short-term awakenings and disorganization of sleep (insomnia or on the contrary excess of sleep).
The RLS corresponds to unpleasant sensations in the legs and an irresistible need to move to the waking state, often in the evening when falling asleep. In 4 out of 5 cases, RLS is associated with the PYD.
What can be done?
There are a few things that can be done to prevent insomnia.
Get a good mattress
Big surprise here, if your mattress sucks then so will your sleep. If you get a good air mattress for your guests (example) then they will also have a good sleep.
Another thing that can be done is to highly eliminate the noise in the area. A white noise box can help greatly with this. Also wearing earplugs will help too.